University of Zagreb

Faculty of Kinesiology

Theory of Training
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Theory of Training
Code: 123601
ECTS: 6.5
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Igor Jukić
doc. dr. sc. Sanja Šalaj
Lecturers: doc. dr. sc. Daniel Bok - Seminar
prof. dr. sc. Igor Jukić - Seminar
doc. dr. sc. Sanja Šalaj - Seminar

doc. dr. sc. Daniel Bok - Exercises of applied kinesiology
Davor Kovačević , mag. cin. - Exercises of applied kinesiology
doc. dr. sc. Sanja Šalaj - Exercises of applied kinesiology
doc. dr. sc. Dario Škegro - Exercises of applied kinesiology
Take exam: Studomat

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 45
Seminar 14
Exercises of applied kinesiology 16
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
2.1.Course objectives
The objective is to enable the students to attain knowledge about the organization and operation of sports system. Acquiring theoretical and training knowledge required for planning, programming and fitness diagnostics in sports at different competition quality levels during all phases of long-term athletic development.
2.2.Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course
No enrolment requirements.
2.3.Learning outcomes at the level of the programme to which the course contributes
Training theory provides the students with knowledge about: theoretical and methodological principles of selection in sports, sports diagnostics, and planning and programming in sports.
The students will learn to :
-Identify and analyze characteristics of different sports activities, sports preparedness/fitness and sport shape components, principles of selection in sport, factors of successful sports career in all types of sports;
-Explain and critically evaluate training methods for the development and maintenance of physical fitness and learning as well as for teaching technical and tactical skills aimed at safe gradual athletes progression;
-Apply acquired knowledge in sports training programmes design according to the diagnosed athletes sports fitness levels and within available time period and training conditions.
2.4.Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)
In the formation of Training Theory learning outcomes, relying on the clearly determined tasks of this course, the students will be able to define and analyze:
-Different sports systems, their strong and weak sides and resources necessary for maintaining sports system development on the local, regional and global level;
-Sports activity characteristics that appear as a result of structural, biomechanical, functional/energetic and other types of analyses, convenient for generating knowledge about different sports disciplines and hierarchical factor structure relevant to performance of each discipline;
-Internal features of athletes: abilities, skills and characteristics, i.e. basic anthropological features and specific dimensions which allow them quality training and high sports performance;
-Diagnostic procedures aimed at defining sports fitness levels at the beginning (initial level), during (transitive levels) and at the end (final level) of each training process;
-Sports selection procedures (orientation to sport and sports discipline ) of potential candidates for top-level performance;
-Sports shape as the condition of athletes that allows him/her the achievement of top-level results at the main competitions;
-Sports preparation process consisting of sports training as a transformational process, competition systems and recovery methods;
-Biological principles of training and training methodology principles presenting the foundation for the planning and programming of the process of training, competition and recovery;
-Teaching methods for technical and tactical (TE-TA) skills acquisition and training methods aimed at the progression of athletes physical fitness development and improvement of TE-TA skills;
-Sports preparation planning and programming for individual athletes and sports teams in different sports disciplines and in different phases of long-term and annual periodization;
Within this course, the students, i.e. prospective teachers and coaches, will acquire fundamental knowledge for successful work in school sport, top-level sport, as well as in sports for the disabled.
2.5.Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)
Theoretical lectures (each topic is covered by 2 classes except the topic number 23 which is covered by one class):
1.Training theory: basic fields of the course. Sport: features of sport. Why is sport entitled to special social status?
2.Sports in European countries: features of sport in the European Union countries. The most relevant factors that influence the development and status of sport. Science, theory and practice of sport and sports training.
3.Scientific, theoretical and practical field of functioning in sport. Sports training definitions. The essence and main tasks of sports training.
4.Sports training - short period of development. Analysis of sports activities: structural, biomechanical, anatomical and functional/energetic analysis. Criteria for the classification of sports activities.
5.Athletes abilities, characteristics and skills. Athletes situational performance. Competition results.
6.Athletes physical condition. Technical and tactical preparedness of athletes. Levels of technical and tactical preparedness. Parameters of situational performance in certain sports disciplines.
7.Factorial structure of performance in sport. Equation of performance specification in sport. Diagnostics in sport. Phases of diagnostic procedures. Models of top-level athletes characteristics.
8.Selection in sport: system of orientation to sport and sports discipline choice. Selection process. Sport and sports training of children and youth: sports schools. Fundamental rules of the children and young athletes training. Factors affecting successful sports career.
9.Sports preparedness/fitness and sports shape: the dynamic determinants of sports shape. Sports training as transformational process: shapes of sports preparedness curves. Types of transformational processes.
10.Sports competitions: classification of competitions. Planning and conducting competitions. Athletes recovery: supplemental factors. Classification of recovery methods. Illicit pharmacological drugs: doping.
11.Biological principles of sports training: adaptation in sports. Training process continuity. Progression of load in training and competition .Undulation of load in training and competition.
12.Training methodology principles: goal orientation of sports training. Interrelation of sports preparation programmes. Periodicity of sports training.
13.Sports training methodology: definition, structure and determinants of training methodology. Contents (means) of sports preparation: classification and characteristics of training contents/exercises. Application of training exercises.
14.Training and competition load. Total loads and its components. Load prescription. Training methods in sport. Training methods classification and description.
15.Organization forms of training. Methodological aspects of facilities, equipment and training aids utilization.
16.Fundamentals of physical conditioning methodology: definition, structure and characteristics of physical conditioning in sports. Effects of physical conditioning on athletes organism. Types of physical conditioning. Cardio-respiratory fitness training methodology; motor abilities training methodology.
17.Teaching methodology of technical and tactical skills: fundamentals of teaching technical and tactical skills. Classification and description of teaching methods. Stages of motor learning. Specificity of teaching a child-athlete.
18.Programming teaching of technical and tactical skills: programmes of technical and tactical skills teaching. The cybernetic model of programmed teaching/learning in sports. Programming perennial and annual teaching process.
19.Planning and programming of training: periodization. Types of planning and programming. Planning and programming methods. Long-term planning and programming. Perennial training cycle: periodization of long-term sports preparation. Mid-term planning and programming (Olympic cycle).
20.Short-term planning and programming (annual and semi-annual cycle): short-term planning and programming algorithm. Plan and elements of the annual training programme Current planning and programming (mesocycles: periods and phases): preparatory period/pre-season. Competition period/in-season. Transitional period/off-season.
21.Operative planning and programming (microcycle): classification of microcycles. Designing training in microcycles. Operative planning and programming (a training day and a training session).
22.Designing sports preparation process: fundamentals of sports training for elementary school children; fundamentals of sports training for high school youth.
23.Introduction to sports research methodology: research in the field of sport and sports training. Application of scientific research results in sports.
Seminars (each topic is covered by 2 classes)
1.Sports activity and social environment and their influence on a child-athlete.
2.Supplemental contents of sports preparation: training specificity in different geographic and climate environment.
3.Sports performance analysis; identification, registration of standard and derived indicators of situational performance.
4.Physical conditioning training methods: motor and cardio-respiratory abilities training, improvement of morphological characteristics. Training.
5.Technical and tactical preparation training methods: learning and teaching in sports.
6.Designing sports preparation in perennial cycle: phases and sub-phases of the long-term preparation. Universal/versatile sports school, elementary sports school, specialized sports school, final sports specialization.
7.Designing sports preparation in an annual cycle: different types of annual cycle training periodization, specificity of designing plans and programmes for periods, phases and microcycles.
Exercises (each topic is covered by 2 classes)
1.Sport in modern society. Quantitative analysis of the status of sports in the world.
2.Measurement, assessment and evaluation of athletes abilities, characteristics and skills.
3.Factorial analysis of sports performance. Designing hypothetical equation of performance specification.
4.Designing operators (choosing contents and dosing loads) in physical conditioning
5.Programming instruction of technical and tactical tasks. Identification and correction of motor errors.
6.Designing training plan and programme in perennial training cycle for school and club system sport.
7.Designing training plan and programme in an annual cycle: periods and phases.
8.Designing training plan and programme in microcycle and training session.
  1. 1.Milanović, D. (2013). Teorija treninga - kineziologija sporta. Zagreb, Kineziološki fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu.
  2. 2.Milanović, D. (2007). Teorija treninga: priručnik za praćenje nastave i pripremanje ispita. Zagreb: Kineziološki fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu.
  3. 1.Milanović, D., Jukić, I., Čustonja, Z., Šimek, S. (2004). Razvojni pravci hrvatskog sporta. u: Bartoluci, M. (ur.). Sport u turizmu. Zbornik radova međunarodnog znanstvenog skupa Menedžment u sportu i turizmu, Zagrebački velesajam, 20. i 21. veljače, Kineziološki fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, 1-10.
  4. 2.Milanović, D., Čustonja, Z., Neljak, B., Harasin, D., Halamek, Z., Čustonja, H., Škegro, D. (2009). Strategija razvoja školskog sporta u Republici Hrvatskoj 2009. - 2014. Ministarstvo znanosti, obrazovanja i športa, Hrvatski školski športski savez.
  5. 3.Milanović, D., Jukić, I. (ur.) (2003). Zbornik radova Međunarodnog znanstveno-stručnog skupa: Kondicijska priprema sportaša. Zagreb: Kineziološki fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagrebački športski savez.
  6. 4.Milanović, D., Jukić, I., Šalaj, S. (2010). Individualizacija trenažnog procesa u sportu. Zbornik radova 19. ljetne škole kineziologa, 36-48.
  7. 5.Milanović, D., Šalaj, S., Gregov, C. (2011). Nove tehnologije u dijagnostici pripremljenosti sportaša. Zbornik radova 20. ljetne škole kineziologa (u tisku).
5. semester
Mandatory course - Mandatory studij - Kinesiology
Consultations schedule:
  • doc. dr. sc. Sanja Šalaj :

    Online in MS Teams, mondays at 10

    Location: 194
  • doc. dr. sc. Sanja Šalaj :

    Online in MS Teams, mondays at 10

    Location: 194
  • doc. dr. sc. Dario Škegro :

    Friday 15:00 h or via e-mail: 

    Location: 118